Tokyo, officially Tokyo Metropolis,
is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. The capital of Japan, it
houses the Emperor of Japan and the Japanese government. Tokyo forms
part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main
island, Honshu, and includes the Izu and Ogasawara Islands.
Originally a small fishing village named Edo, the city became a prominent political center of Japan when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603. When Emperor Meiji moved the imperial seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868, Edo was renamed Tokyo, literally "the Eastern Capital". The Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. While commonly referred to as a city, Tokyo is a collective entity of multiple smaller municipalities, including 23 special wards and various bed towns in the western area.
Modern Tokyo is categorized as an alpha+ city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. As of 2019, the population of Tokyo was estimated to be over 13.9 million, making it Japan's most populous prefecture. The metropolitan area is the world's most populous with over 40 million people as well as the world's largest urban agglomeration economy. As of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. The city ranked sixth on the Global Financial Centres Index of 2019. Along with an advanced economy, Tokyo often ranks high among the most expensive cities for expatriates.
Tokyo is a major cultural hub and an international trendsetter in the arts, entertainment, gastronomy, and media. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. The city has hosted multiple international events, including the Summer Olympics (1964), the G7 Summit (1979, 1986, and 1993), and will host the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo is a leading center for research and development, represented by various universities, most notably the University of Tokyo.